Chronology of ULFA insurgency in Assam

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United Liberation Front of Asom

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Guwahati: Chronology of events associated with ULFA since its inception: April 7, 1979: United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) formed at Rang Ghar, an Ahom-era amphitheatre, in Assam's Sivasagar.


June 1979: Members meet at Moran to discuss the outfit's name, symbol, flag and constitution.

1980: Begins flexing its muscles by targeting Congress politicians, business houses from outside the state, tea gardens and public sector companies, particularly the oil and gas sector.

1985-1990: Assam slips into turmoil during the first term of the Asom Gana Parishad government led by Prafulla Kumar Mahanta with the ULFA unleashing a spate of kidnappings, extortions and killings, including Russian engineer Sergei November 1990: Unilever's seven tea executives airlifted from Doomdooma with the help of Union home ministry and without the knowledge of the Assam government.


November 28, 1990: Operation Bajrang was launched by the Army against ULFA. The operations were led by GOC 4 Corps Commander Lt Gen Ajay Singh who later went on to become Assam's Governor.

November 29, 1990: President's Rule was imposed with the dismissal of the Mahanta-led AGP government.

November 1990: Assam was declared a Disturbed Area and the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act was invoked. ULFA was declared a separatist and unlawful organization.


January 31, 1991: Operation Bajrang called off.

January 1991: Then Prime Minister Chandrasekhar informs Rajya Sabha that the central government would take necessary steps if ULFA expressed willingness for political talks.

ULFA responded that no talks were possible as long as army operation and President's Rule continued and that there would be no compromise on their demand for Assam's 'sovereignty'.


June 1991: Congress government led by Hiteswar Saikia assumes office.

September 1991: Operation Rhino was launched against ULFA.

March 1992: ULFA splits into two factions with a section coming over the ground and surrendering and organising themselves as Surrendered ULFA (SULFA) 1996: AGP returns to power and Prafulla Kumar Mahanta becomes chief minister for the second time.


January 1997: Unified Command, comprising army, state police and para-military forces, headed by the chief secretary constituted for coordinated strategy and operations against ULFA.

1997-2000: Series of killings of family members of ULFA militants allegedly by SULFA which was termed as 'Secret Killings'.

2001: Congress government with Tarun Gogoi as the chief minister assumes office.


December 2003: 'Operation All Clear' launched by the Royal Bhutan Army to close down ULFA and other NE militant camps in the neighbouring country.

2004: ULFA agrees to hold talks with the government.

September 2005: ULFA constitutes 11-member People's Consultative Group (PCG). Three rounds of talks, led by eminent Jnanpith award-winning author Indira (Mamoni) Raisom Goswami, were held with Centre but failed to make any headway.

June 2008: Leaders of ULFA's 28th Battalion declare a unilateral ceasefire.

December 2009: ULFA top leaders, including chairman Arabinda Rajkhowa, were arrested in Bangladesh, deported to India and jailed in Guwahati.

December 2010: Jailed ULFA leader forms 'Citizen Forum', comprising intellectuals, writers, journalists and professionals to urge the government for talks.

2011: Rajkhowa and other jailed leaders released.

ULFA splits into two factions: ULFA (Pro-talks) led by Rajkhowa, and ULFA(Independent), headed by Paresh Barua.

2012: ULFA submits a 12-point charter of demands to the government.

2015: ULFA general secretary Anup Chetia was released from a Bangladesh jail after serving a term of 18 years since 1997.

May 2021: BJP's Himanta Biswa Sarma becomes chief minister and extends olive branch to Paresh Barua-led ULFA(I).

April 2023: The Centre sends a draft of the proposed agreement to the ULFA (pro-talks) faction.

October 2023: Anup Chetia informs that suggestions regarding the draft proposals were sent to the Centre.

December 29, 2023: Tripartite signing of Memorandum of Settlement between the Centre, state government and ULFA (pro-talks) faction.